ES2016 introduced only two new features :

`Array.prototype.includes()`

- The exponential operator

`Array.prototype.includes()`

The `includes()`

method will return `true`

if our array includes a certain element, or `false`

if it doesn't.

```
let array = [1,2,4,5];
array.includes(2);
// true
array.includes(3);
// false
```

### Combine `includes()`

with `fromIndex`

We can provide `.includes()`

with an index where to begin searching for an element. Default is 0, but we can also pass a negative value. The first value we pass in is the element to search and the second one is the index:

```
let array = [1,3,5,7,9,11];
array.includes(3,1);
// true
array.includes(5,4);
//false
array.includes(1,-1);
// false
array.includes(11,-3);
// true
```

`array.includes(5,4);`

returned `false`

because, despite the array actually contains the number 5, it is found at the index 2 but we started looking at position 4. That's why we couldn't find it and it returned `false`

. `array.includes(1,-1);`

returned `false`

because we started looking at the index -1 (which is the last element of the array) and then continued from that point onward. `array.includes(11,-3);`

returned `true`

because we went back to the index -3 and moved up, finding the value 11 on our path.

## The exponential operator

Prior to ES2016 we would have done this:

```
Math.pow(2,2);
// 4
Math.pow(2,3);
// 8
```

Now with the new exponential operator we can do this:

```
2**2;
// 4
2**3;
// 8
```

It will get pretty useful when combining multiple operations like in this example:

```
2**2**2;
// 16
Math.pow(Math.pow(2,2),2);
// 16
```

Using `Math.pow()`

you need to continuously concatenate them and it can get pretty long and messy. The exponential operator provides a faster and cleaner way of doing the same thing.